July 2013 - academic paper: "What Matters to Users? Factors that Affect Users' Willingness to share Information with Online Advertisers" (pdf) by Pedro Giovanni Leon, Blase Ur, Manya Sleeper, Rebecca Balebako, Richard Shay, Lujo Bauer, and Lorrie Faith Cranor, at Carnegie Mellon University; Yang Wang at Syracuse University; and Mihai Christodorescu at Qualcomm Research Silicon Valley "We recruited our participants using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing service. Recruitment materials indicated that the study would be about how individuals experience the Internet. They provided no indication that either OBA [online behavioral advertising] or privacy would be major components of the study. We required that participants live in the United States and be age 18 or over." "We analyzed responses from 2,912 participants between the ages of 18 and 74 (mean = 31 ...)." "Table 1: Demographics of our 2,912 participants." Gender: Female: 1,375, 47% Male: 1,537, 53% IT Background: Yes: 695, 24% No: 2,217, 76% Internet Usage (hours/day): <1: 72, 3% 1–5: 1,144, 39% 5–9: 975, 34% 9–13: 519, 18% 13–17: 135, 5% >17: 67, 2% Occupation: Administrative support: 183, 6% Art, writing, or journalism: 178, 6% Business, management, or finance: 205, 7% Computer engineering: 299, 10% Education (e.g., teacher): 184, 6% Engineering: 48, 2% Homemaker: 176, 6% Legal: 43, 2% Medical: 102, 4% Retired: 44, 2% Scientist: 80, 3% Service (e.g., retail clerks): 177, 6% Skilled labor: 77, 3% Student: 624, 21% Unemployed: 253, 9% Other: 212, 7% Decline to answer: 27, 1% Education: Some high school: 46, 2% High school degree: 243, 8% Some college: 987, 34% Associate’s degree: 266, 9% Bachelor’s degree: 1,038, 36% Graduate degree: 331, 11% "Around half of our participants were unwilling to disclose any personal information in exchange for targeted ads. The remaining participants were willing to disclose their gender, low-granularity location, operating system, and web pages they had visited at a higher rate than other types of personal information. ... The data-retention period and scope of use significantly impacted participants’ willingness to disclose the types of information for which participants had varied responses. ... under 3% of participants would disclose their phone number. On the other extreme, participants were most willing to disclose arguably innocuous information, such as their country (53%) and gender (46%). Between these two extremes were types of information for which users’ willingness to disclose was affected by the scope of use of the information, and for how long it would be retained. ... Very few participants were willing to disclose sensitive information. For instance, only a handful of participants were willing to disclose their SSN (<1%), credit card number (<1%), address (2%), phone number (3%), exact current location (4%), and credit score (5%). ... In contrast, nearly half of our participants were willing to disclose less sensitive information. Many participants were willing to disclose their web browser version (43%), operating system (45%), and gender (46%). Participants were similarly willing to disclose coarse-grained information about their location, such as the state (43%) and country (53%) from which they were visiting the health website. ... More than half of our participants would not be willing to permit data collection on any of the nine categories of sites we presented. Participants were most willing to allow data collection on arts and entertainment websites (40% of participants), travel websites (34%), and news websites (32%). Only around 8% of participants would be willing to have their actions on dating or online banking sites used for targeting ads, and only 15% of participants felt the same for photo-sharing websites. ... 25% of participants were willing to have data from health sites used for OBA purposes. ... 62% of participants would not pay to stop data collection, 69% would not pay to remove ads, and 80% would not pay to see generic ads in place of targeted ads. Participants cited several reasons for not being willing to pay. They commonly felt they could obtain the information they wanted on other websites without paying, or use free software to block ads. They also felt that websites should be free, and that privacy is a right they should not have to pay for."